VIIRS Nightfire

“These are the radiancies of the perfected vision that sees the good and step by step moves nearer what it sees.”

- Dante Alighieri, The Paradiso - 1307


VIIRS is unique in the recording of near-infrared and short-wave infrared data at night. This includes the M7, M8, and M10 spectral bands. Nighttime M11 data became available in December 2017. With sunlight eliminated, combustion sources are readily detected, particularly in the M10 and M11 bands. The recorded signal can be fully attributed to the combustion source. In our analysis we use data from all of the VIIRS bands collecting data at night. The data from M10, M11, M12 and M13 bands are used to detect combustion sources. To eliminate noise, confirmation is sought in the Day/Night Band (DNB), M7 and M8. Plank curve fitting is performed to estimate the temperature of background and hot sources.

Data Format

Nightly VNF data are available in CSV and KMZ format. For KMZ files, it is recommended to use Google Earth to browse the content. 

The CSV files are compressed in GZIP format. Follow instructions below to decompress them.
  Use 7-zip to unpack .gz file.

Mac OS/Linux:
  Double click on the .gz file to unpack. Or use the command gunzip <file.gz> in command line interface (CLI) to un-compress and extract the GeoTIFF files.


Nightly data is available in Download section.


There are two types of VNF CSV, i.e. complete and EZ. VNF CSV in EZ type, for example v30-ez, has a subset of columns which are useful for most users.

CSV Readme (v30-ez) is available HERE.
CSV Readme (v21) is available HERE.
CSV Readme (v21-ez) is available HERE.

KMZ Placemark

Each VNF detection is given a placemark according to its temperature.

KMZ Placemark Definition
Non-confirming detection
400K < T < 1000K
1000K < T < 1200K
1200K < T < 1400K
1400K < T < 1600K
1600K < T < 2500K
2500K < T


Currently EOG is producing VNF V30 with imagery from both NPP and NOAA-20 (J01) satellites.

Version Type Access
V21 KMZ Open Access
V21 CSV Open Access except for commercial use
V21 ezCSV Open Access except for commercial use
V30 KMZ Open Access
V30 CSV Restricted Access. Contact EOG for details.
V30 ezCSV Open Access except for commercial use


VIIRS Nightfire algorithm had experience multiple upgrades. Currently we are archiving V2.1 derived from two sources, i.e. NOAA GRAVITE and NOAA CLASS. The operational one is V3.0.

Nightfire V3.0

Nightfire V2.1 (GRAVITE)

Nightfire V2.1 (CLASS)

Special Studies

Annual Global Gas Flare Analysis

EOG have developed a set of methods for the global survey of natural gas flaring using VIIRS data. The original development was conducted with data from 2012. This has now been expanded to 2019. 

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Legacy DMSP Global Gas Flare Analysis

Prior to VIIRS, EOG had used DMSP-OLS to estimate the global gas flaring volume.

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When using the data please credit the product generation to the Earth Observation Group, Payne Institute for Public Policy, with proper citations as below.

  • Elvidge, Christopher D., Mikhail Zhizhin, Feng-Chi Hsu, and Kimberly E. Baugh. “VIIRS nightfire: Satellite pyrometry at night.” Remote Sensing 5, no. 9 (2013): 4423-4449.



Satellite-Detected Natural Gas Flaring


The World Bank

Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership (GGFR)