VIIRS Nightfire

“From there we came outside and saw the stars.”

- Dante Alighieri, Inferno 1321 A.D.


VIIRS is unique in the recording of near-infrared and short-wave infrared data at night. This includes the M7, M8, and M10 spectral bands. Nighttime M11 data became available in December 2017. With sunlight eliminated, combustion sources are readily detected, particularly in the M10 and M11 bands. The recorded signal can be fully attributed to the combustion source. In our analysis we use data from all of the VIIRS bands collecting data at night. The data from M10, M11, M12 and M13 bands are used to detect combustion sources. To eliminate noise, confirmation is sought in the Day/Night Band (DNB), M7 and M8. Plank curve fitting is performed to estimate the temperature of background and hot sources.

Data Format

Nightly VNF data are available in CSV and KMZ format. For KMZ files, it is recommended to use Google Earth to browse the content. 

The CSV files are compressed in GZIP format. Follow instructions below to decompress them.
  Use 7-zip to unpack .gz file.

Mac OS/Linux:
  Double click on the .gz file to unpack. Or use the command gunzip <file.gz> in command line interface (CLI) to un-compress and extract the GeoTIFF files.


Nightly data is available in Download section.


There are two types of VNF CSV files, i.e. complete (CSV) and easy (ezCSV). VNF ezCSV, for example v30-ez, has a subset of columns which are useful for most users.

CSV Readme (v35-ez) is available HERE.
CSV Readme (v30) is available HERE.
CSV Readme (v30-ez) is available HERE.
CSV Readme (v21) is available HERE.
CSV Readme (v21-ez) is available HERE.

Sample files

Users can download sample files below to evaluate their format and content.
V30 Full CSV sample file is available HERE
V30 ezCSV sample file is available HERE

Why ezCSV?

Easy CSV (ezCSV) provides all core columns most users find useful, while removing smaller detections to make it match what is shown in the KMZ file. Full CSV contains more columns (see readme for details) and more detections. The ezCSV is a subset of the full CSV, with detections filtered for top-hat or local maximum detections and are free of bow-tie effect.

See maps below for comparison of records in full CSV (left) and ezCSV (righ).
Move the slider bar in the middle to compare the content from different flavors of VNF CSVs.

Large gas flare near Basra, Iraq (7/21/2021)
Tamarack Fire near Lake Tahoe, USA (7/21/2021)

KMZ Placemark

Each VNF detection is given a placemark according to its temperature.

KMZ Placemark Definition
Non-confirming detection
400K < T < 1000K
1000K < T < 1200K
1200K < T < 1400K
1400K < T < 1600K
1600K < T < 2500K
2500K < T


Currently EOG is producing VNF V30 with imagery from both NPP and NOAA-20 (J01) satellites.

Version Type Access
V21 KMZ Open Access
V21 CSV Open access by application* except for commercial use **
V21 ezCSV Open access by application* except for commercial use **
V30 KMZ Open Access
V30 CSV Open access by application* except for commercial use **
V30 ezCSV Open access by application* except for commercial use **

* Please submit application to EOG for access following the instruction here.
** Please submit application to EOG to initiate commercial licensing process and get interim access. 


VIIRS Nightfire algorithm had experience multiple upgrades. Currently we are archiving V2.1 derived from two sources, i.e. NOAA GRAVITE and NOAA CLASS. The operational one is V3.0.

Unauthorized to download files? Please submit application to EOG for access following the instruction here.

User with interim access can only download ezCSV. Only fully licensed users can access full CSV.

Nightfire V4.0 (New!) Data Repository

Nightfire V3.5 Data Repository

Nightfire V3.0 Data Repository

Nightfire V2.1 (GRAVITE)

Nightfire V2.1 (CLASS)

Special Studies

Annual Global Gas Flare Analysis

EOG have developed a set of methods for the global survey of natural gas flaring using VIIRS data. The original development was conducted with data from 2012. This has now been expanded to 2019. 

Visit Page

Gas Flare Global Catalog 2020

A web map application

Explore gas flares identified in 2020 and their historical records around the globe.

Take me to the map

Legacy DMSP Global Gas Flare Analysis

Prior to VIIRS, EOG had used DMSP-OLS to estimate the global gas flaring volume.

Visit Page

Temporal Loops

Check out the movie loops EOG made for different regions of interest showcasing changes of VNF over time.

VIIRS Night Fire Movie Loops

Permian Basin Monthly from 2012 to 2022 (with number of detections) Open


When using the data please credit the product generation to the Earth Observation Group, Payne Institute for Public Policy, with proper citations as below.

  • Elvidge, Christopher D., Mikhail Zhizhin, Feng-Chi Hsu, and Kimberly E. Baugh. “VIIRS nightfire: Satellite pyrometry at night.” Remote Sensing 5, no. 9 (2013): 4423-4449.



Satellite-Detected Natural Gas Flaring


The World Bank

Global Gas Flaring Reduction Partnership (GGFR)


Xprize Competition